ONUG Cloud Native Security Working Group Blog Series #1
Those of us in the role of having to keep modern applications simultaneously available, scalable, and secure – often referred to as DevSecOps practitioners – quickly develop the understanding that collecting operational data is foundational to our success. In fact, this principle is increasingly essential in light of emerging trends around modern applications. In this first article on the theme of the role of data in a DevSecOps practice, we start by pointing out some of the most noteworthy changes in the area of modern application development, making the case for why data telemetry is crucial. Later articles will follow up with recommendations for best practices on the collection, curation, and analysis of the data.
A good starting point is to consider how applications are constructed and deployed, and how that has evolved over the last decade. Application architectures were for over two decades expressed in monolithic or 3-tier stacks; however, application architecture is now a composition of multiple building block containers and services. Meanwhile, application deployments are increasingly manifested in a diverse set of environments: privately managed data centers, dispersed over public cloud, edge, CDN, and even client footprints. Application infrastructures have transitioned from physical network appliances to abstracted services like databases and identity management, to application development platforms running on compute servers in public or private clouds; indeed, infrastructure today abstracts all layers below the core application business logic, including transport, database, and identity. Application development was once performed by a centralized, in-house team of specialists; application development today highly leverages open source code and outsourced functionality-as-a-service, and even in-house development is often distributed across the enterprise.
So, what does this all mean to a DevSecOps practitioner? The two most important implications are that these trends have simultaneously both exposed new threat surfaces, while – as an unfortunate implication of abstracting the services – reducing visibility into the operations of the application’s infrastructure components. Exacerbating the consequences of these two factors is the ever-increasing scale of modern applications as they endeavor to address business-to-consumer and even IoT scale solutions.
The key pillars of a DevSecOps strategy are therefore:
Future articles will go into each of these aspects of the solution strategy in more detail, but today we can give a taste of each of these 3 pillars of the approach.
First, we start with the axiom “you can’t fix what you can’t see.” Even if the portion of the application developed in-house within your enterprise – typically, that is the core business logic that is your company’s value-add – is wonderfully designed, undergoes a threat model review to consider and address the myriad threats against that code, and is instrumented to provide operational telemetry, what happens when an open-source package that your application leverages is found to have a vulnerability? Or a debug tool in the cloud deployment environment is improperly secured, and allows reverse shell access? Clearly, because the application is a composed of a medley of multiple components, many of which are third party, you need visibility into the operation of all of these components.
A corollary to this is the second pillar: threat surfaces exist at multiple levels – network, application support services, protocol, API, and business logic. Increasingly, many of those levels are abstracted away, but the threats still remain. For example, your cloud provider may supply a native API gateway, but what happens if an attacker attempts to abuse your application’s public-facing APIs – specifically, what does the application infrastructure do if the inputs to the API are malformed, or excessively large? Analogous concerns exist for all other outsourced aspects of infrastructure, such as databases or identity services.
The third pillar arises as a repercussion of doing a good job on the first two items – namely, you may end up drowning in a sea of data that no reasonable group of humans can consume, let alone analyze, in any timely manner. Consider modern Advanced Persistent Threats (APT’s): they are quick hitters, patiently lying dormant and waiting for long periods of time, followed by a short burst of activity to exfiltrate data. Finding this short burst is like looking for the proverbial needle in the haystack, but with the added pressure of needing to find the needle within seconds. To meet this challenge, the solution must leverage AI to find the needle and, in some cases, perform automated remediation to stop the attacker in a timely manner. An interesting wrinkle is that the data collected – the realm of the first two pillars – must be curated in an AI-friendly manner to make the automated response feasible.
In conclusion, the goal of this article is to set the stage for a set of deeper dives and more detailed recommendations in articles that follow. At the overview level, the key concepts to take away as a DevSecOps practitioner are first, the evolving nature of modern applications – their compositional architecture strategy, with much of the underlying infrastructure abstracted away from the application developer, deployed in a distributed manner across cloud, edge, and browser – and, second, the implications around new threat surfaces coupled to the lack of development visibility into many of the building blocks and foundational elements of the infrastructure. From there, the need for greater operational visibility – in the form of real-time data telemetry across the entire application stack, coupled to AI-assisted data analysis – becomes clear as a key component of DevSecOps of the future. Future articles will dive into how best to collect the data telemetry exhaust, collate and transform it into more machine-consumable formats that are leveraged by automated and AI-assisted workflows, all in an integrated and agile manner.